Assignment: Acquired Pneumonia Infections
Journal for Nurses in Professional Development www.jnpdonline.com 309
Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
benefitYcost ratios and ROI percentages require a mone- tary balancing measure to the expenses of the inter- ventions. A search was conducted for published costs associated with a wide variety of conditions. This update of the Known Costs of Outcomes Table (see Table 2) in- cludes (a) most recent costs reported since 2010, (b) a revised format organizing the conditions with similar topics, (c) an increased number of conditions, and (d) an alphabetized order for ease of locating the correct table.
IMPLICATIONS FOR NPD A consistent method was not found in the literature to de- scribe the financial and clinical impact of professional development activities. The original articles demon- strate how to calculate cost analysis, benefitYcost ratio,
cost-effectiveness analysis, and ROI with educational inter- ventions. Within this article, updated literature shows greater reporting in publications, but disseminating more economic impact of educational interventions will contrib- ute to the body of evidence regarding the value of pro- fessional development activities. NPD practitioners routinely measure the impact of education interventions but seldom addressed the financial impact. More consistent measuring and reporting of the financial and clinical impact of NPD activities is warranted.
References Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality. (2014). Saving lives and
savingmoney:Hospital-acquired conditionsupdate. Interimdata fromnational efforts tomake care safer 2010Y2014 (p. 13, Exhibit A3).
TABLE 2 Updated Known Costs of Outcomes Table 2018, Continued Conditions Recent Cost Estimate References Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)
Estimated extra cost per case in 2015: $47,238
VAP represents 1/4 of all ICU-acquired pneumonia infections.Meta-analysis: 13 studies. HAP/VAP added 8.37 days to the ICU LOS (N= 11). The pooled hospital costs attributable to HAP for all international settings were $28,008. In 2 U.S./Canadian studies, the excess costs were higher ($65,589) Median treatment costs per outpatient episode: $346 (range $195Y$551). Median costs per inpatient episode: $4,851 (range $3,313Y$7,669) High risk: $2,464Y$5,885 with invasive ventilation; $2,386Y$5,739 with noninvasive ventilation; $40Y$248 postdischarge cost Moderate risk: $852Y$2,678; $34Y$207 postdischarge cost
Kalsekar, Amsden, Kothari, Shorr, & Zilberber (2010)
Konomura, Nagai, & Akazawa (2017)
Tumanan-Mendoza, Mendoza, Punzalan, Reganit, & Bacolcol (2015)
Violence-workplace Violence intervention (hospital- based)
Hospital-centered violence intervention
Savings of $4,100 for 100 individuals Average hospital costs postrecidivism (base case): $6,513 (range $1,996Y$100,000) Cost of VIP: $2,810 Average hospital costs postrecidivism with standard referrals: $18,722
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