Assignment: Case Comparing Ontologically
This discussion reveals yet another way the notion of a trilogy of comparable factors falls short. Race, class, and gender are in no way comparable ontologically. The term “class” is a shorthand indicator pointing towards the realm of capitalist accumulation, where labor power is consumed and surplus value produced. To the extent that biological processes contribute to the reproduction of labor power, “gender” intersects with “class” but is not logically necessary to it.8 Both “class” and “gender” can be analyzed in the abstract, forming part of the system of capitalist accumulation understood at the theoretical level. But “race” stands apart — more real and at least as damaging in our daily lives, I think — than either class or gender.
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Ahmed, Sara. 2012. On Being Included: Racism and Diversity in Institutional Life. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press.
Beal, Frances M. 1970. “Double Jeopardy: To Be Black and Female.” Revised from 1969 pamphlet. In Sisterhood is Powerful, ed. Robin Morgan. New York: Vintage Books.
Benn Michaels, Walter. 2006. The Trouble with Diversity: How We Learned to Love Identity and Ignore Inequality. New York: Metropolitan Books.
Bhattacharya, Tithi. 2013. “What is Social Reproduction Theory?” https:// socialist- worker.org/2013/09/10/what-is-social-reproduction-theory
———. 2015. “How Not To Skip Class: Social Reproduction of Labor and the Global Working Class.” Viewpoint Magazine. https://www.viewpointmag.com/ 2015/10/31/ how-not-to-skip-class-social-reproduction-of-labor-and-the-global-working-class
Boyce Davies, Carole. 2008. Left of Karl Marx: The Political Life of Black Communist Claudia Jones. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press.
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Cabrera, Nolan L. 2008. Review of The Trouble with Diversity, by Walter Benn Michaels. InterActions: UCLA Journal of Education and Information Studies, 4:1.
8 For examples of how the reproduction of labor power does not necessarily require biological processes, see Vogel, 2013, chs. 10 and 11.
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Collins, Patricia Hill, and Sirma Bilge. 2016. Intersectionality. Cambridge, England: Polity Press.
Combahee River Collective. 1995 (1977). “A Black Feminist Statement.” In Words of Fire: An Anthology of African-American Feminist Thought, ed. Beverly Guy-Sheftall. New York: The New Press.
Crenshaw, Kimberlé. 1989. “Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Discrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory, and Antiracist Practice.” University of Chicago Legal Forum, 89, 139–167.
Davis, Kathy. 2008. “Intersectionality as Buzzword: A Sociology of Science Perspec- tive on What Makes a Feminist Theory Successful.” Feminist Theory, 9:1, 67–85.
Evans, Sara M. 2015. “Women’s Liberation: Seeing the Revolution Clearly.” Feminist Studies, 41:1, 138–149.
Ferguson, Susan, and David McNally. 2013. “Capital, Labour-Power, and Gender Relations: Introduction to the Historical Materialism Edition of Marxism and the Oppression of Women.” Pp. xvii–xl in Vogel, 2013.
Fields, Barbara J. 1990. “Slavery, Race and Ideology in the United States of America.” New Left Review, 181 (May–June), 95–118.
Giardina, Carol. 2010. Freedom for Women: Forging the Women’s Liberation Movement, 1953–1970. Gainesville, Florida. The University Press of Florida.
Gimenez, Martha. 2001. “Marxism and Class, Gender and Race: Rethinking the Tril- ogy.” Race, Gender & Class, 8:2, 22–33.
———. 2018 (forthcoming). “Intersectionality: Marxist Critical Observations.” Science & Society, 82:2 (April).
“Intersectionality.” 2017. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Intersectionality. Accessed March 4, 2017.
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