The Observation-Participation Reflection Enabler is very important in obtaining holistic, specific, and accurate data. All data from the top and middle of the Sunrise Model are reflected on with the three modes of decisions and actions to arrive at culturally congruent care (bottom part of model). All data collected is thoughtfully examined with the author’s six qualitative criteria: credibility, confirmability, meaning-in- context, recurrent patterning, saturation, and transferability (Leininger, 1995, 1997). Specific evidence that these criteria are met is essential to substantiate or refute the domain of inquiry and the theory.

In sum, the Culture Care theory has been a major and sig- nificant contribution to establish and maintain the discipline of transcultural nursing discipline over the past five decades. The holistic and particularistic features and the ethnonursing method have led to a new body of knowledge about culture and care phenomena. Today, nurses are becoming sensitive to and knowledgeable about cultural differences and similarities in people’s care. A wealth of rich research findings, however, has yet to be woven into practice, education, and administra- tion. Transcultural knowledge is also being used by other dis- ciplines today. Many users of the theory find it most meaning- ful and timely as our world becomes increasingly global and complex, requiring realistic and sensitive understanding of people.


Leininger, M. (1978).Transcultural nursing. Thorofare, NJ: Slack. (Reprinted in 1994 by Greyden Press, Columbus, OH)